Metamaterials are man made non natural but "artificial" materials which can be designed to have a wide range of functional properties, which are not found in the natural world. Metamaterials exhibit special electromagnetic properties, due to their structural morphology, and not specifically due their composition as with the Carbon allotropes: fullerene, nanotubes, graphene, graphite, hybrids and diamond, which compositionally they are made of carbon, but due to their distinct structure, they have singular performance properties.
Some metamaterials used in optics and electromagnetic applications have a negative refractive index.
This property can make objects appear invisible to the sight and to specific electromagnetic or acoustic wavelengths.
Metamaterials present key benefits for Civil applications, in acoustics, optical and electromagnetic devices such as high capacity/resolution microprocessors, ultrasound-based medical devices, cameras, etc.
Metamaterials are being applied to the manipulation of electromagnetic systems as well as to thermal, acoustic, mechanic, and even quantum physics systems. Such applications include the creation of a negative effective mass density and negative effective modulus, an acoustic “hyperlens” with resolution greater than the diffraction limit of sound waves, and an invisibility cloak for thermal flows.
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