Conductive 3Dresyns for electronics

Conductive 3Dresyns
Our innovative Conductive 3Dresyns have been designed to have excellent dispersibility at a high content of post added organic conductive and semiconductive materials for ultra fast additive manufacturing of high-performance electronic devices (OLEDs, OPVs, OTFTs, PCBs, etc...) printed at micron resolution (<30 micron) with SLA DLP 3D printing and at nano resolution (100 nm) with 3D lithography printing.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a type of Light Emitting Diode (LED) in which a film of organic compounds emits light in response to an electric current. They are used in lighting applications and in appliances that include mobile phones, MP3 players, lighting applications and electronic displays such as high definition televisions and portable devices.

Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs) devices convert solar energy to electrical energy.
A typical OPV device consists of one or several photoactive materials sandwiched between two electrodes. OPVs are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin devices to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction.

Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) technology involves the use of organic semiconducting compounds in electronic components e.g. computer displays, RF tags. The fabrication process of OTFTs is less complex than conventional silicon technology, which involves high-temperature and high-vacuum deposition processes and complex photolithographic patterning methods. In general, room temperature deposition and particularly SLA/DLP 3D printing can replace the more complicated and expensive processes involved in conventional silicon technology.
In addition, the mechanical flexibility of organic conductive materials and their dispersibility in our photopolymeric 3Dresyns makes them naturally compatible with plastic substrates for lightweight and foldable products.
Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) can be custom made with our Copper based conductive 3Dresyns in minutes instead of in hours in comparison with the existing time consuming traditional custom acid etching manufacturing process. 
Our Copper containing 3D resins once 3D printed on the rigid board (rigid glass fibre (FR4), epoxy or phenolics) and/or on flexible boards such as high-temperature plastics such as Kapton, exhibit excellent adhesion, durability, electrical conductivity of Copper and soldering characteristics since weld easily with the solder. 

Benefits of Conductive 3Dresyns:
• increased content of conductive material per layer can be printed vs existing conventional printing systems

• relatively low slurry viscosities with excellent flow at high conductive content
• broad range of finishes from hard & tough to elastic with excellent adhesion properties to adapt to rigid and flexible devices or substrates
• excellent resolution down below to 30 microns with single photon excitation polymerization and down to 100 nm (0.1 micron) with two photon polymerization

Organic conductive materials
Compared to inorganic silicon materials, organic conductive materials are cheaper and can be 3D printed with our Conductive 3Dresyns in thicker layers than the existing, contact and noncontact printing systems, to say ink-jet, photolithography, gravure, flexo and offset printing.
Despite being SLA/DLP printing a batch process applications such as high performance electrode depositions can benefit from it because since this technology permits the printing at high resolution of high content of conductive materials at high slurry viscosities.

Organic conductive materials can be incorporated in our specialty Conductive 3Dresyns to produce conductive SLA/DLP 3D resin systems, so conductive electronic devices can be efficiently made at the desired organic conductive material content and high layer thickness to compensate their relatively lower efficiency vs existing silicon inorganic conductive materials,  for the new generation of conductive printed devices.

Conductive 3Dresyns HCCS are 3D resin systems already containing high content of pre-dispersed organic conductive materials, which are available upon request to adapt to specific customer technical requirements.

The following examples of Conductive 3Dresyns for SLA/DLP 3D printing can be designed and formulated upon request:

Conductive 3Dresyn PTB7
Conductive 3Dresyns containing PTB7 or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl) oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3fluoro- 2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) for high efficiency organic solar cells (OPVs). OPV device structure: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTB7 :PC71BM/Ca/Al; JSC = 14.9 mA/cm2, VOC = 0.75 V, FF = 0.69, PCE = 7.4% Features: Molecular weight: average Mw 80,000-200,000. Mw/Mn   2.4 +/- 0.6. PDI   ≤3.0. Absorption   λmax 680 nm (thin film)
Conductive 3Dresyn Graphene
Recently graphene started to be used to make electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors, to fabricate devices with improved energy and power densities.
Graphene electrodes have excellent conductivity, stability, and high surface area. However, standard graphene production methods yield thin films that aggregate or stack, reducing surface area and making the material difficult to process.

Conductive 3Dresyns containing Graphene microspheres, nanospheres and nanoplates can produce SLA/DLP 3D printed sheets and devices. The Benefit of SLA/DLP 3D printing is the fabrication of thicker films at higher graphene content than existing technologies.
Applications: Graphene (nano)composite materials, Conductive inks and coatings “3D resins”, Energy Storage, etc..

Conductive 3Dresyn Graphene oxide
Graphene oxide is being used in many fields, such as chemical sensors, biosensors in biomedical applications to detect hormonal catecholamine molecules, avidin and DNA. It is also being used once functionalized with glucose oxidase and after deposition on an electrode as an electrochemical glucose sensor.

Graphene oxide is transparent and can be used as Visible light transparent electrodes for both light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cell devices. It has been used as a hole transport layer in polymer solar cells and LEDs.
Features and Benefits: refractive index   n20/D 1.333, large surface area, high chemical stability, good charge carrier properties, chloride free (purified by dialysis), monolayer sheet, mean sheet diameter: 22 μm, 90% below 50 μm by laser diffraction.

Conductive 3Dresyn TPBi
Conductive 3Dresyn containing TPBi or 2,2′,2"-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)- tris(1-phenyl-1-H- benzimidazole). Used in OLED′s devices as electron transport and exciton blocking materials.
Orbital energy: HOMO 6.2 eV  LUMO 2.7 eV. OLED Device Performance. ITO/MoO3/NPB/Cz-BTPE/TPBi/LiF/ Al (ref 2). Color: blue. Max. Luminance: 9911 Cd/m2. Max. EQE: 1.9 %.

Other Conductive 3Dresyns based on specific organic conductive materials can be designed upon request to adapt to specific customer technical requirements.

Please contact us to consult about Conductive 3Dresyns and your performance goals at: