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Conductive 3Dresyns for electronics

Conductive 3Dresyns
Our innovative Conductive 3Dresyns have been designed to have excellent dispersibility and stability, without agglomeration issues, of pre and/ or post added metallic, inorganic and organic conductive and semiconductive materials for ultra fast additive manufacturing of high-performance electronic devices such as OLEDs, OPVs, OTFTs, PCBs, etc 3D printed at micron resolution (<20-30 microns) with SLA, DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D printing.
Our ready to buy conductive resins and additives are ideal for 3D printing high conductivity materials for electronics e.g. antennas for IoT applications (HF, UHF), RFID and NFC tags, Oled and OPVs, flexible PCBs, flexible cables, etc...
Our capabilities include the incorporation, wettability, dispersibility and stabilisation of a broad range of nano and micron particle size conductive and semiconductive materials, in both powder and/or liquid form of different polarities, from hydrophilic (polar) to hydrophobic (non polar), in our specific custom designed SLA, DLP, LCD and inkjet 3D resins, as the ones highlighted in the following reviews:

Electroforming 3Dresyns and additives

Mandrels can be printed with our water soluble sacrificial 3D resin3Dresyn Perfect Cast WS1 and dip coated with our conductive resins. After electrodeposition / electroplating of metals such as gold, mandrels can be easily dissolved in water.


Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a type of Light Emitting Diode (LED) in which a film of organic compounds emits light in response to an electric current. They are used in lighting applications and in appliances that include mobile phones, MP3 players, lighting applications and electronic displays such as high definition televisions and portable devices.

Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs) devices convert solar energy to electrical energy.
A typical OPV device consists of one or several photoactive materials sandwiched between two electrodes. OPVs are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin devices to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction.


Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) technology involves the use of organic semiconducting compounds in electronic components e.g. computer displays, RF tags. The fabrication process of OTFTs is less complex than conventional silicon technology, which involves high-temperature and high-vacuum deposition processes and complex photolithographic patterning methods. In general, room temperature deposition and particularly SLA/DLP 3D printing can replace the more complicated and expensive processes involved in conventional silicon technology.
In addition, the mechanical flexibility of organic conductive materials and their dispersibility in our photopolymeric 3Dresyns makes them naturally compatible with plastic substrates for lightweight and foldable products.
Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) can be custom made with our Copper based conductive 3Dresyns in minutes instead of in hours in comparison with the existing time consuming traditional custom acid etching manufacturing process. 
Our Copper containing 3D resins once 3D printed on the rigid board (rigid glass fibre (FR4), epoxy or phenolics) and/or on flexible boards such as high-temperature plastics such as Kapton, exhibit excellent adhesion, durability, electrical conductivity of Copper and soldering characteristics since weld easily with the solder. 
ESD (Electrical Dissipation Discharge) materials
We can custom design electrostatic dissipative (ESD) 3D resins to protect 3D printed materials against premature failure or damage due to electrostatic discharge in a variety of applications such as automotive, aerospace, electronic and electrical packaging and equipment and other plastics applications. 
We can develop custom ESD materials printable by SLA, DLP, LCD and Inkjet to meet your specific performance needs.
Thermal conductivity and electric insulation
Aluminum nitride (AlN) powders provide high thermal conductivity of around 10 W/m-K, as well as electric insulation. This material has excellent heat dissipation, which is vital in modern high-power electronic devices, such as electric vehicles in the automobile industry, high power LED lamps, and other applications.

Benefits of Conductive 3Dresyns:
  •  increased content of conductive material per layer can be printed vs existing conventional printing systems
  • relatively low slurry viscosities with excellent flow at high conductive content
  • broad range of finishes from hard & tough to elastic with excellent adhesion properties to adapt to rigid and flexible devices or substrates
  • excellent resolution down below to 30 microns with single photon excitation polymerization
Organic conductive materials
Compared to inorganic silicon materials, organic conductive materials are cheaper and can be 3D printed with our Conductive 3Dresyns in thicker layers than the existing, contact and noncontact printing systems, to say ink-jet, photolithography, gravure, flexo and offset printing.
Despite being SLA DLP, LCD and Inkjet printing a batch process applications such as high performance electrode depositions can benefit from it because since this technology permits the printing at high resolution of high content of conductive materials at high slurry viscosities.
Organic conductive materials can be incorporated in our specialty Conductive 3Dresyns to produce conductive SLA/DLP 3D resin systems, so conductive electronic devices can be efficiently made at the desired organic conductive material content and high layer thickness to compensate their relatively lower efficiency vs existing silicon inorganic conductive materials,  for the new generation of conductive printed devices.

Conductive 3Dresyns HCCS are High Conductive Content Slurries or Solutions of pre-dispersed metallic, organic or inorganic conductive materials, which are available upon request to meet specific conductive technical requirements.

The following examples of Conductive 3Dresyns for SLA, DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D printing can be designed and formulated upon request:
PEDOT

PEDOT is a family of conductive polythiophene polymers which is used in the fabrication of organic light emitting diodes(OLEDs), thin film transistors(TFTs) , rigid and flexible translucent sensors and circuits for backlit capacitive keys and other conductive and electrochemical devices.

Our capabilities include the dispersion and stabilisation of PEDOT based materials in 3D resin systems printable  with SLA, DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D printing.
Advantages of PEDOT based systems are relative optical transparency once diluted (translucency), high stability and moderate band gap and low redox potential.
Another advantage of PEDOT is its intrinsic flexibility vs Indium Tin Oxide ITO, which is too rigid and brittle to be used in flexible applications. PEDOT is ideal for clear and opaque flexible 3D printed sensors and other conductive systems. Its non toxic nature, results in an excellent solution for 2D & 3D printed bio sensors.   
A main disadvantage is its poor solubility in most solvent systems, which is overcome with our expertises in surface chemistry and our efficient dispersion systems, which ensure maximum dispersability, flow and suspension stability of PEDOT, PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT-TMA nano and micron size materials. Applications of PEDOT include electrochromic displays, antistatics (ESD safe), photovoltaics, electroluminescent displays, printed wiring, and rigid, flexible and biosensors. For more detailed information about our capabilities in 3D printed sensors please click here

Conductive 3Dresyn PTB7

Conductive 3Dresyns containing PTB7 or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl) oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3fluoro- 2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) for high efficiency organic solar cells (OPVs). OPV device structure: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTB7 :PC71BM/Ca/Al; JSC = 14.9 mA/cm2, VOC = 0.75 V, FF = 0.69, PCE = 7.4% Features: Molecular weight: average Mw 80,000-200,000. Mw/Mn   2.4 +/- 0.6. PDI   ≤3.0. Absorption   λmax 680 nm (thin film)
 
Conductive 3Dresyn Graphene
Recently graphene started to be used to make electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors, to fabricate devices with improved energy and power densities.
Graphene electrodes have excellent conductivity, stability, and high surface area. However, standard graphene production methods yield thin films that aggregate or stack, reducing surface area and making the material difficult to process.

Conductive 3Dresyns containing Graphene microspheres, nanospheres and nanoplates can produce SLA/DLP 3D printed sheets and devices. The Benefit of SLA/DLP 3D printing is the fabrication of thicker films at higher graphene content than existing technologies.
Applications: Graphene (nano) composite materials, Conductive inks and coatings “3D resins”, Energy Storage, etc.

Conductive 3Dresyn Graphene oxide
Graphene oxide is being used in many fields, such as chemical sensors, biosensors in biomedical applications to detect hormonal catecholamine molecules, avidin and DNA. It is also being used once functionalized with glucose oxidase and after deposition on an electrode as an electrochemical glucose sensor.

Graphene oxide is transparent and can be used as Visible light transparent electrodes for both light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cell devices. It has been used as a hole transport layer in polymer solar cells and LEDs.
Features and Benefits: refractive index n20/D 1.333, large surface area, high chemical stability, good charge carrier properties, chloride free (purified by dialysis), monolayer sheet, mean sheet diameter: 22 μm, 90% below 50 μm by laser diffraction.

Conductive 3Dresyn TPBi
Conductive 3Dresyn containing TPBi or 2,2′,2"-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)- tris(1-phenyl-1-H- benzimidazole). Used in OLED′s devices as electron transport and exciton blocking materials.
Orbital energy: HOMO 6.2 eV  LUMO 2.7 eV. OLED Device Performance. ITO/MoO3/NPB/Cz-BTPE/TPBi/LiF/ Al (ref 2). Color: blue. Max. Luminance: 9911 Cd/m2. Max. EQE: 1.9 %.

Thermally conductive 3Dresyn AlN

Aluminum nitride (AlN) features a combination of very high thermal conductivity and excellent electrical insulation properties. Its usage is ideal for power and microelectronics systems. For example, it is used as a circuit carrier (substrate) in semiconductors, IGBT modules, telecommunications, in cooling systems as a heat-sink in LED lighting technology or high power electronics.

Electromagnetic sensors and markers

We have the capabilities to design conductive 3D resins which orientate or "react" to electromagnetic fields. This orientation can be observed visually  to monitor quantitatively, once calibrated, the exposure to electromagnetic fields. This new material can be used as electromagnetic field marker or tester.

Other Conductive 3Dresyns based on specific organic conductive materials can be designed upon request to adapt to specific customer technical requirements.
Please contact us to consult about Conductive 3Dresyns and your performance goals at: info@3Dresyns.com