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Ceramic slurries for additive manufacturing of technical ceramics by injection molding

The usage of traditional ceramic injection molding CIM slurries with 3D printed durable and/or water soluble sacrificial molds has unique benefits in comparison to direct printing of ceramic slurries based on photopolymer resins, to say:

  • full range of technical ceramics and metals slurries can be cast using traditional CIM and MIM feedstocks
  • higher sintering density, lower microporosity vs metal Selective Laser Sintering SLS and direct printing of ceramics and metals by SLA and jetting
  • less productive limitations, much faster and ecological debinding without solvents, with water for faster debinding and sintering times without limitation of thickness vs. ceramic and metal printing by SLA and jetting
  • increased isotropy vs metal Selective Laser Sintering SLS and direct printing of ceramics and metals by SLA and jetting 
  • lower costs since our soluble 3D resins allow the printing of sacrificial or durable molds with affordable SLA, DLP and LCD printers with prices ranging from 300 to 10,000 Euros and with traditional  injection molding machines and traditional ceramic and metal feedstocks

    Traditional Ceramic Slurries with these features and benefits can be injected in 3D printed molds made with our  durable and/or water soluble sacrifical 3D resins:

    • excellent dispersion and flow of high micron and submicron ceramics with additions up to 65% volumen concentrations
    • very high resolution after injection in durable or water based sacrificial injection molds
    • high quality 
    • controlled and reproducible process shrinkage
    • minimum expansion coefficient and wide temperature interval of debinding to prevent micro-fractures
    • very high resolution of 20 microns of final products
    • controlled shrinkage

    Typical properties of Sintered Ceramics

    Material

    Density (g/cm3)

    Flexural Strength    (MPa)

    Fracture Toughness    (MPa√m)

    Vickers Hardness (HV) GPa

    Melting  Temperature ºC

    Sintering Temperature ºC

    Properties and Benefits

    Alumina Al2O3

    3.8-3.9

    350-600

    4-6

    15-20

    2000

    1100-1300 air

    Excellent thermal stability, wear resistance, low electrical conductivity (electrical insulator), high chemical  and corrosión resistance, good mechanical strength up to 1000ºC, high expansion coefficient, thermal shock resistance

     

    Zirconia ZrO2

    5.8-6

    400-900

    6-7

    10-15

    2700

    1450-1500 air

    High strength, fracture toughness, hardness, wear resistance, good frictional behaviour, non-magnetic, electrical insulation, low thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance in acids and alkalis, modulus of elasticity similar to steel, coefficient of thermal expansion similar to iron

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ/Y-TZP) 

    -

    900-1200

    9-10

    12-13

    2400-2700

    1450-1500 air

    Outstanding hardness, strength and fracture toughness, excellent chemical and wear resistance

    Used in many high wear applications: dental, engineering, microreactors, equipment,

    Silicon carbide SiC/SiSiC

    3.1-3.2

    350-800

    4-5-5

    18-22

    2700 decomposes

    1200-1450, up to 2200°C, Ar, N2 or similar inert atmosphere

    Outstanding thermal shock resistance, extreme hardness, high thermal conductivity, low expansion coefficient, semiconductor, high oxidation resistance, refractive index greater than a diamond. Typical operating temperatures 1000-1500ºC

    Silicon niride Si3N4

    3.1-3.3

    700-900

    6-7

    13-20

    1900 decomposes

    1100-1450, up to 1700, air

    High strength, low electrical and thermal conductivity (electrical insulator), high resistance to molten metals, excellent thermal shock resistance, high wear resistance

    Used in many dielectric heating or RF (radio frequency) heating applications where the material is in contact with hot metal parts and in automotive and machine tool industries for bearing and wear parts which run in abrasive environments.

    Hydroxy apatite HA

    2.5-2,6

    21

    1-2

    5

    800-1200 decomposes

    1200-1250, air

    Chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals, classed as bioactive and biocompatible, supports bone ingrowth and osseointegration when used in prosthetics, orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications

     

     

    Material

    Properties and Benefits

    Main Applications

    Alumina Al2O3

    High hardness and mechanical strength under compressive loading, excellent thermal stability, wear resistance, low electrical conductivity ( high frequency electrical insulator), high temperature, chemical  and corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength up to 1000ºC, high expansion coefficient, thermal shock resistance, excellent wear resistance, good anti-plasma

    Excellent electric insulator products, sand and shot blasting nozzles, welding shield and nozzles for laser cutting guns, tubes with single hole to multi core/hole cavities, seals, textile wear parts and thread guides, piston and sleeves for chemical pumps, corrosion resistance components, ceramic coldplate for power electronic cooling, heating element fixtures, surgical instruments

    Zirconia ZrO2

    High hardness, mechanical strength and toughness, fracture toughness, hardness, wear resistance, good frictional behaviour, non-magnetic, electrical insulation, low thermal conductivity, , modulus of elasticity similar to steel, coefficient of thermal expansion similar to iron, excellent wear resistance, high fracture toughness, low thermal conductivity, good chemical and corrosion resistance in acids and alkalis

    Pump parts, dies, knives, cutting blades, spikes, scissors, wear parts for wear applications, valves and pump components,ceramic plain, balls and roller bearings, tubes, fixtures for high temperature applications, copper tube extruding & reducer diez, thermal insulation components, wear resistance and cutting blades, Dental restorations and appliances, fuel cell components, structural ceramics

    Yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ/Y-TZP

    Outstanding hardness, strength and fracture toughness, excellent chemical and wear resistance

     

    Used in many high wear applications, dental restorations: crowns, copings and bridges, engineering, microreactors, analyitic equipment

    Silicon carbide SiC/SiSiC

    High hardness, good room and high temperature and strength, outstanding thermal shock resistance, extreme hardness, high thermal and electrical conductivity, low expansion coefficient, semiconductor,high oxidation resistance, refractive index greater than a diamond, operating temperatures 1100-1500ºC, high temperature strength, high chemical  and corrosión resistance, high fracture toughness,

     

    High temperature resistant parts, mechanical seals, sliding bearings, mechanical seals for chemical pumps, wear parts such as thread guides, Kiln furniture crucibles, burners for high temperature furnaces, sand blasting nozzles, heat exchangers tubes, emiconductor parts, wafer processing plates & discs components

    Silicon nitride Si3N4

    High strength, low electrical and thermal conductivity (electrical insulator), high resistance to molten metals, excellent thermal shock resistance, high wear resistance, high temperature strength, excellent thermal shock resistance, wear resistance, light weight  (low density), chemical resistance, good fracture toughness, mechanical fatigue, excellent compressive strength and creep resistance, excellent non-wetting property with good oxidation resistance

     

    Dielectric heating or RF (radio frequency) heating applications in tool industries for bearing and wear parts engines in abrasive environments, antiwear liner, powder equipment, molten metal parts, metal forming tools. Gas turbine engines,  turbocharger rotors, high temperature propulsión components, foundary components. Automotive: bearings, tappet shims and buckets, cam rollers, high pressured pumps parts, turbocharge rotors, rocker arm tips, welding location pins, squeeze rollers for radiator tube manufacturing. Balls & bearings.Non-ferrous foundries: thermocouples sheaths, riser tubes, heater tubes, valve rods, valve seats, aluminium powder atomizer tubes, molten metal pumps parts, rotor for degassing shaft, launders due to its high temperature capacity, excellent thermal shock, non-wetting properties. Coordinate Measuring Machine Styluses CMM: various types of styluses, styluses rods, plain bearings, ceramic balls

     

    Hydroxy apatite HA

    Chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals, classed as bioactive, supports bone ingrowth and osseointegration

    Used in prosthetics, orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications

     

    Typical Properties of highly pure Technical Ceramics

    Alumina

    Zirconia

    SiC/SiSiC

    Si3N4

    Bulk Density g/cm3

    3.8-3.9

    5.8-6

    3,1-3.2

    3.1-3.3

    Melting temperature ºC

    2000

    2715

    2730 decomposes

    1900 decomposes

    Maximum operating temperature ºC

    1500-1650

    900-1000

    1100-1500

    1000-1150

    Vickers Hardness HV (GPa)

    15-20

    10-15

    18-22

    13-20

    Flexural Strength MPa

    350-600

    400-900

    350-800

    700-900

    Compressive Strength MPa

    2000-2600

    2000-2500

    1700-2400

    700-2700

    Young's Modulus of Elasticity GPa

    360-380

    200-220

    430-440

    270-300

    Poisson's Ratio

    0.23

    0.31

    0.16

    0.28

    Fracture Toughness MPa√m

    4-6

    6-7

    4.5-5

    6-7

    Coefcient of Linear Thermal Expansion 40400 /40800 (×10-6/)

    7.2/8

    10/11

    3.7/4.4

    2.8/3.3

    Thermal Conductivity  20 W/(mK)

    30-34

    2.9-3.1

    60-200

    23-54

    Specic Heat J/(gK)

    0.78-0.79

    0.46-0.47

    0.67

    0.65-0.66

    Heat Shock Resistance (in water)

    200-250

    300-400

    380-420

    800-900

    Dielectric Strength KV/mm

    12-15

    11-13

    -

    12-13

    Volume Resistivity 20 Ωcm

    >1014

    >1014

    105-108

    >1014

    Volume Resistivity 300 Ωcm

    1013

    108

    104

    1012

    Volume Resistivity 500 Ωcm

    1010

    104

    103

    1010

    Dielectric Constant 1MHz

    9.7-9.9

    28-32

    -

    8.3-9.6

    Dielectric Loss Angle 1MH (×10-4)

    1-2

    16-17

    -

    5-19

    Loss Factor ×10-4

    10-20

    470-520

    -

     

    Nitric Acid60%)90,24H

    10

    0

    <0.04

    0.2-1.1

    Sulphuric Acid95%)95,24H 

    <0.2

    <0.05

    0

    0

    Caustic Soda30%)80,24H

    <0.05

    <0.1

    0

    0.1-0.5

     

    Please contact us to consult about our customised Ceramic slurries and your specific performance goals at: info@3Dresyns.com