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Our way to 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing

Our Goals are your Own Goals, Your Benefits

The objective of 3Dresyns is to offer sensible and cost effective solutions to unmet market needs and develop 3D functional materials and processes for the development of better, safer and more ecological materials and production processes at the lowest possible cost and human impact on the environment.

“3Dresyns offers a full range of safe & functional materials with multiple properties, functionalities and colors: from durable tough and elastic to sacrificial materials for direct and indirect manufacturing"

Other key goals of 3Dresyns is the development of biodegradable and durable biocompatible safe materials,  based on biological and renewable sources.

Our biocompatible resins have non toxic pictograms and are ultra safe for handling and final users. Our wide range of monomer free safe materials ensure the safety of the end user since the potential risk of monomer migration and absorption by the body is completely eliminated.

3D printing is a fast evolving technology where existing and new technologies and production processes are continously developed and improved for making better and safer materials at the lowest possible production costs.

If you are interested in making things and feel like a "homo faber" or "working man" then read this chapter for making new things differently and efficiently.

Depending on your goals some technologies and processes may fit better than others. Sincerely speaking, curiously some cost effective technologies and processes have specific advantages and benefits over alternative more expensive processes.

Simply, manufacturing can be divided in two types: Direct and Indirect Manufacturing.

Direct manufacturing of 3D printed products

Direct manufacturing of 3D printed products, to say: plastics, ceramics and metals, have some benefits and limitations. The following Table summarizes the direct manufacturing/production processes where Additive Manufacturing with SLA,DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D printing technologies are being implemented (please adjust the zoom to read the Table):

 3D printing

Process

Final product

Final properties

Benefits

Limitations 

3D resin

Direct Production DP

3D resin object

Typical properties of cured resins/polymers

Cost effective direct production for short runs of 3D printed materials

Cost effective only for short run productions

Ceramic  3D resin 

Resin debinding  + ceramic sintering at high temperature

Sintered ceramic 3D object

Properties of sintered technical ceramics

 

Direct production of short runs of pure ceramic objects

 

Expensive printers, difficult tuning, slower debinding, smaller feature sizes (max.1-3 mm), more microcracking during debinding than Indirect production with CIM

Metal 3D resin

Direct + resin debinding  + metal sintering at high temperature

Sintered metal 3D object

Properties of sintered technical metals

 

Direct production of short runs of pure metal objects

 

Expensive printers, difficult tuning, slower debinding, smaller feature sizes (max.1-3 mm), more microcracking during debinding than Indirect production with MIM

 

 

Indirect manufacturing of 3D printed products

Indirect manufacturing of products, to say: plastics, ceramics and metals, have also some benefits and limitations. Indirect manufacturing requires the usage of castable materials, models, durable and/or sacrificial molds, etc. The following Table summarizes the Indirect manufacturing/production processes where Additive Manufacturing with SLA, DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D printing technologies are being implemented (please adjust the zoom to read the Table):

3D PRINTING

Process

Final product

Final properties

Benefits

Limitations

Castable 3D resin

Direct investment Casting  DC

Metal cast objects

Typical properties of Cast Metals

Cost effective direct investment casting of metal objects

Most castable competitor's 3D resins suffer from imperfections of fine detail finishes

Non Castable  3D resin

Indirect investment casting IC

Metal cast objects

Typical properties of Cast metals

 

Less cost effective indirect investment casting production of metal objects  with very high resolution Slower process since there are several time consuming production steps
Injection molding 3D resin Direct plastic, ceramic and metal feedstock injection in 3D printed durable injection molds Plastic, ceramic and metal objects Typical properties of Plastics, Ceramics and Metals Cost effective production of durable injection molds for simple shaped plastic, ceramic and metal injection Not suitable for complex intertwined shapes
Sacrificial 3D resin Direct plastic or resin injection and casting in 3D printed easy breaking & soft sacrificial molds Soft plastic, rubber or silicone objects Typical properties of soft Plastics, Rubbers and Silicones

Cost effective production of easy breaking & soft sacrificial molds* for complex shaped soft plastic, rubber and silicone injection molding

Not needed for simple 3d printed shapes, mold is lost during production
Sacrificial 3D resin Direct plastic or resin injection and casting in 3D printed water soluble sacrificial molds Plastic objects Typical properties of Plastics Cost effective production of sacrificial molds* for complex shaped plastic injection molding Not needed for simple 3d printed shapes, mold is lost during production

Sacrificial 3D resin

Direct CIM injection in 3D printed water soluble sacrificial molds

Ceramic objects

Typical properties of Ceramics

 

Cost effective production of sacrificial molds* for complex shaped Ceramic Injection Molding CIM, faster, more productive and without any maximum feature size limitation vs Direct 3D Printing or Production

 

Not needed for simple 3d printed shapes, mold is lost during production
Sacrificial 3D resin

Direct MIM injection in 3D printed water soluble sacrificial molds 

Metal objects

Typical properties of Metals

 

Cost effective production of sacrificial molds* for complex shaped Metal Injection Molding MIM, faster, more productive and without any maximum feature size limitation vs Direct 3D Printing or Production

Not needed for simple 3d printed shapes, mold is lost during production


* sacrificial molds are needed for making intricate complex shapes where the mold and the injected material are entangled 

About manufacturing plastics with SLA
Direct and Indirect manufacturing of functional plastic materials can be undertaken by Stereolithography SLA and Inkjet printing with high resolution printing with an accuracy 5-10 times higher than Fused Deposition Modeling FDM printing.

Direct manufacturing of plastics with SLA

Our photopolymer 3D resins allow the direct manufacturing and printing of safe functional materials by Stereolithography (SLA) and Inkjet printing. They are safe for printers and final users and have high mechanical properties, which are taylored to each specific application requirements, allowing direct manufacturing of the toughest 3D resins such as 3Dresyn Biotough D90 MF ULWA with flexural strengths up to 110-130 MPa and flexural modulus 2100-2500 MPa, but relatively lower flexural strengths (<40 MPa) can be directly 3D printed by SLA for flexible materials with flexural modulus 1000-1500 MPa in comparison to best thermoplastics, such as polyamides "nylon", PEEK, etc, unless our new engineering 3D resins are used: 3Dresyns like best conventional engineering plastics

Required Equipment and materials for direct manufacturing of plastics:

  • SLA DLP or LCD printer for direct printing of plastics or resins . Prices from 500-2000 Euro
  • 3D resins for direct printing
  • Limitation to flexural strengths up to 110-130 MPa. For higher values top performance conventional plastics such as polyamides or PEEK can be injected with indirect manufacturing processes

Indirect manufacturing of plastics with SLA

On the other hand, our 3D resins can be used in Indirect manufacturing for:

Required Equipment and materials for indirect manufacturing of plastics:

When is worth using direct or indirect manufacturing?

The answer depends on:

  • number of produced parts
  • relative costs
  • functionality: performance properties required 
  • biocompatibility requirements

When is justified the "2 step" indirect manufacturing? some benefits of Indirect manufacturing with molds and resin Injection or casting are:

  • increased biocompatibility -unless our Biocompatible 3Dresyns are used by direct SLA DLP & LCD printing- since do not contain inherently irritant low viscosity monomers which are prone to cause skin irritation and allergic reactions
  • superior mechanical properties, which are extremely difficult to achieve with lower viscosity resins based on monomers used in direct manufacturing with SLA,DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D printing, which are overall weaker in mechanical properties
    • flexural strengths above 130 MPa can be obtained with injected reinforced conventional plastics with flexural strengths >200 MPa with the toughest thermoplastics produced by indirect manufacturing processes
    • flexural strengths between >50-70 MPa can be obtained with injection of the strongest flexible thermoplastics, such as Nylon with flexural modulus between 1000-1500 MPa with indirect manufacturing processes vs flexural strengths >40-70 MPa, which are already quite high and can be obtained with our best Engineering SLA 3Dresyns with similar hardness and  flexural modulus produced by "direct SLA printing"
  • versatility, since any conventional or traditional thermoplastic or thermoset "injection molding and casting resins" can be injected or cast by gravity in 3D printed sacrificial or durable molds
  • lower raw materials costs, since conventional or traditional thermoplastic or thermoset "injection molding and casting resins" are cheaper than SLA,DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D resins. 
  • time savings, since the tuning in the printers of SLA,DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D resins has to be done only once and not for each individual 3D resin used in direct manufacturing
  • lower certification costs for dental and biomedical devices, since the existing certifications of non photoreactive traditional  biocompatible thermoplastics materials may be used since no photochemical reaction occurs during their injection in molds, reducing the risk of leaving unreacted monomers and byproducts as it may happen with prints made by direct manufacturing with monomer based 3D resins if not fully cured and cleansed

      About printing of 3D ceramic and metal materials

      Indirect manufacturing of ceramics and metals using durable molds printed with SLA,DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D resins, such as our 3Dresyns for printing durable molds, permits the manufacture of simple shapes of ceramics and metals by injection of  ceramic and metal slurries by traditional injection molding (CIM and MIM) with the advantage of being more cost competitive than metal molds manufactured by CNC.

      On the other hand, direct 3D manufacturing and printing of ceramics and metals with stereolithography SLA DLP, LCD and jetting printers has presented great technological challenges and limitations, such as:

      • adjusting the printing parameters for each ceramic and metal 3D printable resin is a slow and complex process. Opaque materials limit printing to thin layers of a few microns, such as 10-20 microns in direct 3D SLA printing of stainless steel.
      • relatively slower debinding and sintering process, making the production process too slow (7 days) vs the faster debinding of traditional CIM and MIM because relatively higher percentage of photoreactive 3D resin binder c. 15% by weight is required to provide flow and printability at room temperature printing vs the c. 5% used in high injection temperature of traditional CIM and MIM
      • reduced printed thickness down to 1-3 mm. This limitation is due to microcracking caused by the high % of photoreactive 3D resin used in the ceramic and metal 3D resin printed with stereolithography SLA and jetting printers vs traditional CIM and MIM

      Benefits of Indirect Manufacturing of ceramics and metals

      Our SLA DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D resins for injection molding allow printing of high resolution durable and sacrificial injection molds for injection of traditional ceramic and metal feedstocks CIM and MIM. This indirect manufacturing process has several technical and production advantages since the use of traditional ceramic and metal feedstocks shows process and properties improvements such as:

      • less risk of microcracking
      • no thickness limitation
      • higher debinding and sintering speed
      • 100% isotropy vs anisotropy of direct printing of ceramics "layer by layer"
      • improved final properties: higher density, lower microporosity of sintered materials 
      • full range of traditional technical ceramics and metals can be injected using traditional CIM and MIM feedstocks
      • higher sintering density and isotropy, as well as lower microporosity vs metal Selective Laser Sintering SLS and direct printing of ceramics and metals by SLA and jetting printing
      • less productive limitations, much faster debinding and sintering times without the limitation of thickness occurring with direct ceramic and metal SLA and jetting printing
      • lower costs since our soluble resins allow the printing of sacrificial or durable molds even with affordable SLA LCD printers with prices ranging from 300 to 2,000 Euros with traditional  injection molding machines (1000-2000 Euro per injection unit) and with traditional ceramic and metal feedstocks (much cheaper than ceramic and metal SLA 3D resins)

      What Benefits can 3Dresyns offer you?

      For direct manufacturing of ceramics and metals by SLA

      The 3Dresyns team has developed sacrificial 3D resins binders with the aim of providing solutions to the limitations of direct manufacturing and printing of ceramics and metals by 3D stereolithography and jetting. Our sacrificial 3D resins allow their use as:

      • water and non water soluble binders for dispersing your chosen ceramics and metals to reduce debinding and sintering time in direct manufacturing by 3D printing of ceramics and metals with SLA and Jetting

      Required Equipment and materials for direct manufacturing of ceramics and metals by SLA

      • Dedicated Ceramic and metal SLA printers for printing ceramics and metals 3d resins. Prices from 80.000-350.000 Euro
        • lower cost non dedicated to ceramic and metal SLA printers can be used but tuning of ceramic and metal 3D resins to low cost printers is difficult and time consuming 
      • Ceramic and metal 3D resins for direct printing ceramic and metal parts in green state
      • furnace for debinding and sintering

      For Indirect manufacturing of ceramics and metals by SLA

      Our 3D resins for printing injection molds  allow printing of high resolution durable and sacrificial injection molds for injection of traditional ceramic and metal feedstocks CIM and MIM.

      • durable molds are recommended for simple not intertwined shapes between the mold and the produced parts
      • sacrificial molds are recommended for intertwined shapes between the mold and the produced parts

      Required Equipment and materials for indirect manufacturing of ceramics and metals by SLA

        Example of a 3D Printed water soluble material printed with a low cost LCD 3D printer

        Coin in water before its dissolution

        Coin dissolved in water after several hours

        "Our goal in 3D printing: any color, any material, any process, any finish, any end use application and any SLA, DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D printer"

        "3Dresyns offers the widest range of safe functional Stereolithography SLA, DLP, LCD and Inkjet 3D resins for safe printing of functional and biocompatible materials"

        How To Buy: Online Shopping of 3Dresyns in just few clicks: the widest range of 3D resins in the market to help you to attain the desired finish and quality of your 3D prints.

        “The aim of 3Dresyns is to provide the best Stereolithography and Inkjet resins and find solutions to unmet 3D printing market needs for any material, process and application”

        "3Dresyns is committed to innovation and development of safe and biocompatible 3Dresyns with safe synthetic and bio based raw materials from renewable sources"

        Please contact us to consult about our 3D resins and your specific performance goals at: info@3Dresyns.com